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Although the nuclear density method has been widely used in the compaction measurement of both soils and asphalt pavements, its accuracy for asphalt pavements is not as good as that for soils. Due to this issue, many disputes have incurred in construction projects, which resulted in replacement of the nuclear test method with the core sample method in many state DOTs for quality assurance or acceptance including the DOT Region II states. However, most contractors still use it on quality control as a fast and economic test method. The above disputes can mainly attribute to the effect of asphalt’s chemical constitution on the nuclear gauge count readings.